Monthly Archives: December 2014

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China black – why Chinese investors are eyeing Africa’s real estate industry.

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Much of a meal has been made about China’s aggressive investment drive into Africa. I first read Dambisa Moyo’s Winner Take All in 2013 and Dead Aid later on – even though the books were written in the reverse order. In Winner Take All, Ms Moyo makes a fantastic point about how the West is almost jealous about China’s presence in Africa. From toothpicks to bridges, clothes supplies to construction of railway lines, China has a finger in every African pie. I cannot wait to read How The West Was Lost – Moyo’s second book – about the economic tussle between the West and China.
A prophet is not honoured in his homeland
A few years ago, I visited my father’s village – a rich gold mining area in Ghana – with the aim of joining the gold rush by purchasing land and joining the teeming masses in the village involved in “galamsey” (the surface mining of gold). Coming from that region, I can count a long line of family members – dead and alive – whose means of living was through “galamsey”. On this occasion, my father and I had completed negotiations about a piece of land we intended mining. We were in the bush with about half a dozen men. While there, I heard the noise of a vehicle but kept going deeper into the muddy land. When I turned around, to the dismay of both my father and I, there was no one around us. We quickly traced our steps back and saw in the distance all the men and the queen mother standing by a Chinese couple, in a rented Ford Explorer 4×4. They were already busy with negotiations on the same land on which I had already completed negotiations. I waited for them to finish and for the “foreigners” to leave before confronting my kinsmen. The reason they gave was that, with me, they had to bend over backwards to give me a deal. Moreover, as a native, they did not think I had the money to buy the land and that the “foreigners” would pay four times the price they had already agreed on with me. Disappointed, we left.

Fanny Mae and Freddie Mac
During the height of one of the worst recessions in recent times, which some experts believe was partly caused by the fall in the housing market, two names sunk in my head: Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac – two giants of America’s housing and mortgage industry. The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), or Fannie Mae, was set up in 1938 as a government-sponsored organisation whose purpose was to help expand the secondary mortgage market by securitising mortgages in the form of mortgage-backed securities. This allowed lenders to reinvest their assets into even more lending and to increase the number of lenders in the mortgage market. This was better than relying on locally based savings and loan companies.
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), or Freddie Mac, was set up in 1970 with a similar remit as Fannie Mae. Up until 2008 when the Federal Housing Finance Agency put these two under some kind of receivership, these giants straddled America’s mortgage industry with some swagger. In most African countries, the mortgage market is still in its infancy. Many financial institutions ether haven’t got the financial clout, funds or technical know-how to enter the mortgage market. Aside from a few, such as South Africa and, more recently, Nigeria, Kenya and Ghana, the mortgage industry in Africa is very limited despite the huge demand for residential housing stock and the quest to own a home.
With GDP averaging 6% and a growing middle class in practically every African country, the stage is set for a Fanny Mae or Freddie Mac to appear on the horizon of Africa’s mortgage industry.
On the other hand, China’s property prices have fallen for a third straight month, by more than 0.9%, with the worst slump coming in July this year. Developers are scaling back investments, prompting experts to predict financial defaults and lower economic growth in the second half of the year. Stephen Green, head of macro research at Standard Chartered in Hong Kong said: “The next six months are a make or break for China’s property market.”
If China’s property market continues this way throughout this year, it may be the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac moment in China – a sign that Chinese investors need to look elsewhere.
Presently, I struggle to find places where real estate investments’ yields are higher than in Africa, which averages 25%. The mortgage market may still be in its infancy, yet the opportunities here are huge and are ready to be taken by the bold and swift. With financial institutions in the West marking time and playing the “wait and see” game, it will not surprise me to read headlines in the New York Times or Financial Times one day that China has given birth to a Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac in Africa. To distinguish it from its American competitors, they may call it China Black. After all, have we not read similar headlines about China’s investments in oil and gas, and in the mining industries?
Final thoughts
The Chinese appear to be ubiquitous in practically every African country and industry. Its investments transcend the oil and gas, energy, mining, agriculture and consumer industries. It will not come as a surprise if China gets involved in Africa’s real estate industry, particularly the mortgage sector. It will be a welcome “foreigner” since this industry is still virgin in most African countries and needs investment. Do not say I did not tell you so.

Quote of the day:
“With financial institutions in the West marking time and playing the “wait and see” game, it will not surprise me to read headlines in the New York Times or Financial Times one day, that China has given birth to a Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac in Africa”

Douglas Oppong is Founder and CEO of Property Investor Africa. He consults on finance, infrastructure and real estate projects for governments and companies doing business in Africa. douglas@propertyinvestorafrica.com

Africa must embrace technology to reduce its housing deficits

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Habits, they say, are difficult to break. You cannot teach an old dog new tricks is the cliché most people use to describe the difficulty of embracing change. This brings me to my topic: Using technology in construction.
Childhood memories
I have always said that the reason I went into the real estate industry is because, up until I completed university, I never had a room to myself. I look at the luxury my children enjoy – having their own rooms with en-suite facilities – and I cannot be grateful enough for how far I have come. But that was what I wanted while growing up. I wanted to ensure that my offspring did not have to suffer or go through what I did – sleeping in the same room with almost all my siblings; unable to turn the light (lantern) on and off when I wanted to study; or sleep when I wanted to. This was all due to the fact that homes in the part of Africa where I grew up were a rich man’s toy. If your parents were government workers or market traders, owning a house or apartment was the stuff made of dreams. Senior government officers lived in state-built bungalows or leftover Colonial buildings. Low-cost homeownership was practically non-existent. In fact, the 1970s government of Ghana tried building a type of low-cost home known as “nurses quarters”. This was about as far as a nurse/teacher or lucky government worker could aspire to. It was rented out to them, not sold.
Fast-forward 30 years (2014) and you will see the Africa I left behind over 20 years ago – completely different. In practically every African city – from Accra to Addis Ababa, Lagos to Nairobi – there are modern architectural buildings in cities with amazing skylines. Hotels, office accommodation, public buildings, hospitals, and retail malls are all built to a very high standard. Residential homes are now categorised into luxury, middle-range and affordable housing. The “L” word (low cost) previously used to describe cheap government buildings for the masses has now being upgraded to an “A” word (affordable housing). Everybody wants to be associated with something affordable. Who wants to be associated with “low cost”? The stigma of anything low cost is not something anyone wants to attach to themselves.
Making homes affordable for all
Even though times have moved on and inventions have helped expedite the building process, there are still huge challenges facing Africa. Almost all African countries have major housing deficits. The majority of people still live in squalor, and in tin shacks and mud houses. I like mud houses because I lived in one. I like the coolness the grass roof provides in the hot African sunshine. But that is beside the point. African governments must strive to make homes available to the majority who cannot afford to build on their own or purchase anything beyond their means. Doing this will require a concerted effort by governments to do anything possible to source the technology and funding to deliver housing policies that are designed to make the life of the average, hard-working person better.
Joined-up thinking
To reduce the housing deficit, African governments must do “joined-up thinking” with the private sector. They must work together in dialogue on such key areas as use of technology, funding, land availability, mortgage availability, etc. I’m sure there have been many private companies that have tried to go it alone and have not succeeded. Government attempts to go it alone in most African countries have also resulted in failure.
About three years ago I received a telephone call from a Ghanaian entrepreneur about proposals to build affordable housing in that country. Due to the huge furore this project caused in Ghana, I prefer not to name names. This project had the entire country excited. It was the president’s trophy housing policy – a government seen to be doing something at last for the people: the down trodden. Lavish opening ceremonies were held, amid pomp and ceremony and sod cutting. After all the brouhaha, not a single home was ever constructed. All the excited “key workers” – military officers, police and other forces – had their balloons deflated in no time. The matter became a huge legal case between the parties involved and the government. What a mess that was! To my chagrin and (not to my) surprise, succeeding presidents have cut sods and promised to deliver the same housing units previous leaders failed to. This time, even schools have been included. African governments know no shame. In the West, such a government blunder will have the head, or heads, of the president, prime minister and housing minister on a silver platter in parliament, no questions asked. But in Africa, it is business as usual: complain at your peril.
Lessons from Russia
The use of technology and changes in building construction are important if we are to get anywhere. Instead of building horizontally and taking up land, we need to build vertically. It is therefore important to consult experienced companies that have the resources. Again, financial institutions must be brought in the loop to help provide the needed development funding and mortgages to enable eligible, hard-working families to purchase decent homes.
I read a UK newspaper recently about international construction firm, Mace, which is pioneering the use of building information modelling (BIM) with a $2 billion project in Russia. The project consists of medium and high-rise buildings. To reduce cost, the team settled for the use of a mixture of concrete and steel, instead of the usual traditional pre-cast concrete. The new technology will reduce the weight of the structure and will therefore be less taxing on the foundation – St Petersburg has very poor ground conditions. This is Russia, in 2014. African governments have abundant land. They have the people who are crying for affordable housing. The technology is available. The missing ingredients are funding and leadership. Funding can be obtained if the right investors are sought. That, in turn, is dependent on the business/project plan put on the table and “WIIIFI” (What Is In It For Investors).

Attracting investors
“Investor” can have a loose meaning. But largely, it refers to an individual, corporation, or institution that has the financial resources to embark on an investment project with the aim of gaining financial rewards. This includes angel and equity investors, and pension funds, etc.
In most of my travels, when an African politician or businessperson tells me they are looking for investors, nine times out of 10, they are referring to Chinese, Arabs, Europeans, Americans or Asians. They hardly think that an African can come in and invest in their project. However, there are many active investors who happen to be of African origin. The trouble is no effort is made to reach out to them, preferring always to go for the foreign investor. In courting the foreign investor, however, little or no effort is made to put together a “bankable” proposal. Little due diligence is done; no convincing information about the risks involved, exit strategies, etc. No investor will put their money into a project they are not sure will give them returns. It is up to you, the fund seeker, to demonstrate that your project can make money for yourself and the investor, and therefore warrants looking at. This will be the subject of an upcoming diary note.

Conclusion
African governments and businesses in the real estate industry must learn to embrace changes in technology if they are to make headway in reducing the housing deficit. It involves going into bed with the private sector in “joined-up thinking”. It also involves embracing technology and changes in construction practices; using available expertise in-house or via consultants, such as Property Investor Africa, to carve out workable and bankable projects and proposals that are worth looking at by investors.
Similarly, banks and financial institutions must begin to look for and partner with more resourceful ones in Africa or beyond, with the aim of delivering financial products that meet the needs of the people and make them profits too. Until this is achieved, the housing deficit in most African countries will continue to increase: shanty towns will be on the rise and social vices will increase. “Tree-top” living will continue to become the order of the day. Africa rising will become Africa sinking.

Quote of the day:
No investor will put their money into a project they are not sure will give them returns. It is up to you to demonstrate that your project can make money for yourself and the investor, and therefore warrants looking at”

Douglas Oppong is Founder and CEO of Property Investor Africa. He consults on finance, infrastructure and
real estate projects for governments and companies doing business in Africa’s. douglas@propertyinvestorafrica.com

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